International Journal of Hydrogen Energy publishes Dr. Mills EPR paper: what does it mean?
On July 1, The International Journal of Hydrogen Energy published Dr. Mills' "Electron Paramagnetic resonance proof for the existence of molecular hydrino." In layman's terms, here's why it matters.
As some of you who follow me already know, I have written about Dr. Randell Mills’ work for many years. He is an enigmatic, controversial but brilliant physicist based in Cranbury New Jersey (a small town just outside Princeton) who has been developing and studying an alternative theoretical framework to explain how electrons that are bound up in hydrogen atoms and hydrogen molecules (and in all other elements, really) behave at the atomic level.
His work may have enormous implications for physics and for the world, if validation continues to substantiate his claims—as this new paper apparently does.
I developed a friendship with him over the last eight years and I invited him to speak at a Colloquium presentation at my oldest daughter’s university in 2017.
I’ll write another article soon about how I came to know him in the first place, but today I want to try to unpack some of the highlights of his latest paper for you, because it may change everything for him—and for humanity.
If you are interested in an easy-to-grasp summary of his work written by a former intern of his, please also check out Randell Mills and the Search for Hydrino Energy on Amazon.
CognitiveCarbon’s Content is a reader-supported publication. My content is not paywalled, but at just 16 cents a day—$5 / month — you can help me keep the lights on and food on our table as I continue writing.
As the result of over 25 years of research, Randell Mills believes he has developed the means to harness a new form of clean energy production—through a process involving a special transformation of hydrogen, in a way that has never been done before.
It does not involve ‘burning’ hydrogen in any way. Burning, or combustion, always involves oxygen, so you can also call burning something an “oxidative reaction”, meaning that it is an energy-releasing reaction involving oxygen and the substance in question.
Mills process isn’t a combustion process; it is not nuclear in nature; nor is it a hydrogen ‘PEM fuel cell’ process. Fuel cells are a means to essentially generate electric current by stripping protons from hydrogen and passing the protons through a special membrane. Here is a brief description of PEM membrane fuel cells.
Instead, Mills’ hydrino reaction involves creating a (relatively) low temperature and moderate pressure “plasma” which releases enormous energy within a small volume (i.e., high energy density) during what he calls a “hydrino” -formation reaction.
It’s far less complex than fusion.
This is the way it works, to put it as simply as possible. By running a low voltage but high amperage electric current through a reaction chamber—using liquified metal (gallium, for instance, but other metals also work) as electrodes—and introducing both hydrogen molecules and “single molecule” water into the reaction chamber, the water molecules in some sense are made to “collide” with the hydrogen during the hydrino-formation reaction and absorb from them an amount of energy that is needed for normal hydrogen to collapse into what Dr. Mills calls a “hydrino” state.
The energy thus transferred to the water molecule is then released in the form of light (much of it in the extreme ultraviolet part of the spectrum.) This is a bit oversimplified, but it gets to the gist of things. This is why Mills’ calls the reaction chamber a “SunCell”, and why his company is called “Brilliant Light Power”. Here is a new video released just today.
Mills’ theoretical framework to explain what he is working on in the lab has long been viewed as quite controversial —it’s dismissively waved off by most conventional physicists. There are a lot of detractors, and relatively fewer supporters.
The reason for the resistance to his work is typical, and quite expected: if he’s right, many physicists who have spent their careers thinking that the Universe and the world work according to what they’ve been taught would have to radically rethink what they thought they knew—and spent decades learning or teaching—and very few people are capable of or willing to do that.
It falls to people like Dr. Mills—who works outside of the academic “peer group” in physics—someone whose career and reputation are not dependent on conforming to academia’s groupthink to blaze new trails in science.
It also falls to people like me, whose careers are not negatively affected from the “stigma” of being associated with a “fringe scientist” to do what we can to explain and share his brilliant work with a wider audience. I won’t be fired from my current job because I write about topics like this, thank goodness.
So about the paper. This July 1 paper from Dr. Mills may make it exceedingly difficult for the dogmatic “mainstream physics” detractors to ignore him anymore: because he’s found evidence that supports his theoretical model that is otherwise unknown and inexplicable by conventional physics. That’s an interesting sort of result that sometimes breaks open new doors in science.
If he’s right, and he can continue to develop his so-called “SunCell” technology to harness this energetic process, our reliance on fossil fuels could begin to taper; dangerous nuclear fission and complicated nuclear fusion energy woudn’t be necessary in the decades ahead; we could do away with wind turbine farms and vast arrays of solar cells that scar the landscape.
If you have seen the movie Blade Runner 2049, the opening scenes show a bleak future in which most of the world is encased in solar panel arrays, and people farm bugs for food. Let’s hope we can avoid that future with the SunCell.
If Dr. Mills’ process can be commercialized (he’s getting closer every month), anyone in the world will be able to produce more energy than they’ll ever need for themselves —directly at the point of use—without reliance on the “grid” or any centralized (and therefore socially-controllable) power plants. The device might be about the size of a small dormitory-sized refrigerator that you can put almost anywhere.
If such a power source is developed, humanity will experience a kind of freedom we’ve never known. I talk about this in some of my articles linked below. What’s more, it’s probably the cleanest energy source that we can conceive of, uses the most abundant fuel source in the Universe—hydrogen—and it may have a cost per kilowatt hour to produce electricity that could be 300 times lower than solar power and 1/30th that of nuclear power.
Think for a moment of the price deflation that such a drop in energy costs would bring about. A significant fraction of the “cost” of anything that you consume is determined by the cost of the energy that is required to produce it—whether that’s food or products. What happens if the portion of the cost that is determined by the cost of energy drops by a factor of 30 or 300?
What becomes of the “price” of the thing in that case? By the way: if you knew something like this was coming soon, and you were powerful and wealthy, why not stimulate inflation to run rampant for a few years to drive core prices way up, so that prices will eventually “deflate” from a higher level back down to where they are today? This is purely speculation, but something to think about.
I mentioned Mills’ work directly or indirectly in Hydrogen x200 and It’s Always Been about Energy on substack, and also on my wordpress site in the posts titled Hydrogen, Hydrino and Dr. Mills and Hawking, Mills and the Big Bang.
As far back as 2018, I also wrote the post The Future Brightens, which covered a previously published paper from Mills. I first stumbled across his work in 2014 and I was initially very skeptical and dismissive. But something about the man and his published works made me want to dig deeper, and I got on a plane to visit him in Princeton in 2015 to find out if I thought he was credible.
In this article, I want to lay out what claims Dr. Mills is making in this latest published paper in a way that a broader audience can grasp, and also explain to you where it might lead.
The paper has survived peer review, which is remarkable in itself, because the abstract for the paper makes claims right up front that shake the foundations of particle physics as understood through Quantum Mechanics. I’ll get to that in a bit, and explain briefly what Quantum Mechanics is and also the Standard Model of particle physics that depends on it.
What Mills claims in the “Highlights” section of his paper is that he has experimental proof of a new “allotrope”, or a form of hydrogen that has never previously been discovered; that this form of hydrogen has a molecular orbital structure not previously known; and that he can confirm the existence of this form of hydrogen—in a way that is consistent with his theory but is otherwise conventionally inexplicable—using three phenomena that he measured in his experiments.
One of these involves “paramagnetism”, which means a property “(of a substance or body) very weakly attracted by the poles of a magnet, but not retaining any permanent magnetism.”
That is, the material (hydrino, the allotrope of hydrogen) he has created in the lab can be attracted by a bar magnet, but there is no permanent magnetism in the material and no conventional explanation for why it would be magnetically attracted in the first place.
But it is, measurably so, and that’s quite remarkable. Mills showed something similar back in 2018 via a different experiment (image below is from the video link above.)
The second set of phenomena have to do with the electron orbitals surrounding molecular hydrogen—in this new allotrope called hydrino, which Mills also calls H2 (1/4).
The discussion about these is too complex to distill down for our purposes here but suffice it to say that these orbitals are predicted by Mill’s theory, were found to exist in the experiment by various data collected, and they give rise to the paramagnetism described above.
The third phenomenon has to do with gas chromatography. This is a technique for determining the composition of a sample of a material. By vaporizing a sample of “stuff”, the gas chromatogram produces a spectrum graph with a series of vertical lines that correspond to the materials found in that sample.
The location of the lines along the x-axis, called the ‘retention time’, can be used to identify the constituent elements in the sample, because their positions are unique to the elemental atoms.
These techniques are often used to identify unknown substances by vaporizing them inside the machine and looking at their constituent elements to figure out what they must have originally been a part of (i.e., if you measure so much hydrogen, so much oxygen, so much nitrogen, so much carbon etc. in specific proportions relative to one another, then you can identify the original material.)
The two elements with the fastest known “migration times” (which means that the spikes on the chromatogram graph occur closer to the left edge of the chart) are hydrogen and helium.
Hydrogen has the fastest known migration time and is observed at around 8 minutes; in this sample, a novel, previously unknown substance (which Mills claims is hydrino, or H2 (1/4)) shows a migration peak at about 6 minutes: 2 minutes faster than hydrogen, previously believed to be the fastest.
This is a very interesting result.
These results—in particular, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the migration time on the chromatogram—strongly suggest that a new substance, not previously known, has been found by Mills. Remarkably, the measurements are consistent with his theoretical model, therefore appear to confirm his predictions.
So now let’s go back to earlier in this article and explain what these results suggest with regard to Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model.
Quantum Mechanics is a theory of physics developed between 1900 and 1920 and added onto later. What it says, put as simply as possible, is that light—which consists of “particles” called photons—can be emitted or absorbed by the electrons “orbiting” the nuclei of atoms, but the energy levels of the photons can only occur in specific “packets” or “quanta”.
That is, their energy levels cannot change smoothly; they “jump” from one “whole number” level to the next, and are never found at energy levels “in between”. An analogy: its as if photons go up and down “staircases” one full step at a time, instead of sliding up and down the smooth banisters.
For example, if you label the lowest energy state of a photon as “1”, the next allowed energy state is “2”, and there cannot be photons with energy states of, say, 1.5 or 1.332. Photons can only be emitted (or absorbed) at whole number integer multiples (the numbers 1,2,3, 4 etc.) of the lowest energy level, or ‘ground state’.
In the mathematics of Quantum mechanics, there are numbers called “Rydberg numbers” which correspond to these energy levels, and as stated, they are whole number integers from 1 and up.
Layered on top of Quantum Mechanics is another theory called the “Standard Model”, and it predicts the existence of all the elementary particles of the kinds that are found by accelerators like CERN which smash heavier particles together at high speeds to see what comes shooting out of the collision.
The problem is, the math of the Standard Model does NOT have a solution corresponding to a particle that can explain dark matter; but the existence of dark matter is believed to be necessary to explain the rotational motions of the stars and galaxies via gravitational attraction. This is currently one of several “flaws” with Quantum Mechanics.
Unlike the Standard Model of Quantum Mechanics, however, Dr. Mills’ theory DOES account for the existence of dark matter, very elegantly it turns out.
So if Mills is right…Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model will have to be revised (or discarded.) That will cause quite a few physicists to have severe heartburn.
What Mills claims in the opening paragraphs of his abstract of this paper is that Hydrogen can in fact have orbitals that are integer fractions as well. That is, the allowed “Rydberg numbers” could also be 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/8 .. down to 1/137.
The “hydrino” state that Mills claims to be able to produce has a Rydberg number of 1/4 … and this means that the electrons “orbit” closer to the nucleus than Quantum Mechanics says they should be allowed to (1 should be the lowest possible state.)
Hydrogen molecules in this state—H2 (1/4)—are predicted by Mills to be very stable and non-reactive, that is they do not emit or absorb photons. They are “dark”.
They should also have an “orbital radius” (the size of the molecule) that is about 1/64th the diameter of helium, making them quite tiny. Because of this, they are very difficult to “hold on to” because they are small enough to slip through the atoms of most any container vessel.
It turns out that Mills believes this state of non-reactive, “dark” hydrogen—is actually so-called Dark Matter. That’s a topic for another time, but let’s leave it at this: when hydrogen is catalytically induced into forming this stable, non-reactive hydrino state, it releases an amount of energy equivalent to 16 times the ground state of hydrogen.
This results in a release of an enormous amount of energy as compared to what is released when hydrogen is burned in oxygen (for example, inside rocket engines.)
It turns out, burning pure hydrogen in pure oxygen is the most non-nuclear, energy dense reaction we know of—at least, until Dr. Mills came along with the hydrino reaction, which is 16 times as great.
I used this chart in a previous substack to make this visually understandable. See that red circle on the lower right? Slide it over 16 times again as far to the right, and that’s where the hydrino reaction would lie in terms of “MegaJoules per Kilogram”. Those Lithium-Ion batteries in electric cars cannot come anywhere close.
Future Tesla cars…should run on SunCells.
It is this energy density that gives Mills hope of creating a new energy production device. It would convert ordinary hydrogen (found everywhere in the atmosphere, water, and even in space) into the hydrino state, releasing vast amounts of energy in the process, and then like helium, simply escape the atmosphere into space because it is so small and “light” compared to other molecules.
The product is not radioactive and does not produce gamma rays or other ionizing radiation either (which is the problem with nuclear fission, and to some degree with fusion.)
Because hydrogen is the most abundant substance in the whole Universe, it also means there is essentially an inexhaustible supply of “fuel”, and there are no “pollutants” to be concerned with like CO2 that affect our atmosphere (hydrino would escape into space.)
To wrap all of this up: Mills July 1, 2022 paper seems to prove, pretty conclusively, that there IS a new form of hydrogen having these unique paramagnetic properties and chromatograph migration time properties; that his theory predicts that these should exist; and that therefore, his experimental results showing high energy density reactions inside the SunCell are likely valid and explainable.
The end of the fossil fuel era is possibly in sight…and it means we don’t have to stare at fields of wind turbines or acres upon acres of ugly solar panels to live comfortably into the infinite future.
The future will be as bright as the sun.
If you are interested in exploring further, please also see Aureon.ca and SafireProject. This team is also exploring a plasma reaction for energy production, but they don’t have the same degree of strong theoretical work (that is published, anyway) explaining how their reaction works. Here is an older video of the Safire sun:
A reader asks: “How nonreactive is the hydrino state? Can it absorb kinetic or electromagnetic energy and revert back to ground state? Under what circumstances?”
I’ll rephrase this slightly: if the hydrino reaction causes normal H2 to become H2 (1/4) (which is postulated to be Dark Matter), is the process “reversible”? I posed this question to Dr. Mills via email, and his response is essentially this:
The hydrino allotrope H2 (1/4) is chemically non-reactive and non-reactive to photons. However…
Collisions with high enough kinetic energy can ionize H2 (1/4) into H+ and e-, which can then re-combine back into H and H2.